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Tuluni:The Harvest Festival of Nagaland

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Tuluni:The Harvest Festival of Nagaland


Exploring Nagaland is like unfolding secret pages of a history book and is real discovery of breath taking and untouched natural beauty, of hidden and unknown traditions, of a vibrant culture and joyous festivals and the supreme quality of people and their hospitality.
The popularity of Nagaland in and outside India is mainly due to the co-existence of a number of colourful tribes and ethnic cultures that are prevelant there. The rich and exclusive traditional heritage here gives way to a number of fairs and festivals in Nagaland that add a rejuvenating touch to the already beautiful and fresh mountain air of Nagaland. These tribal festivals of Nagaland are celebrated throughout the year.
Tuluni is one among many popular festivals of Nagaland and its of superior adherence to the Sumi people, who are the inhabitants of Zunheboto district.The tribe celebrates the festival with splendour and grandeur.
“Tuluni” means rice-beer.It is served in a glass made of bamboo.Tuluni is also known as “Anni”,which means “the season of Bountiful yields”. In the past, Tuluni was celebrated in a couple of regions (Ghabo and Ajo).Ghabo was a hot region, and the people residing there were known as ‘Ghabomis‘. People residing in Ajo were known as ‘Ajomis’. Traditionally, it was celebrated four months after sowing the seeds, but in 1972, the people of Sumi decided to celebrate it on eighth of July every year.Though it is a one-day festival nowadays, the ancestors used to celebrate it for seven days which were observed with great commitments and were equally significant.
Tuluni is a harvest festival of the Sumi tribe. People who work effortlessly in farms throughout the year relax during this festival and celebrate with delight. It is in the Sumi culture to arrange betrothal of young couples during the festival. The remainder of the festival is celebrated in the heavy observance and execution of various age old rituals and ceremonies. Various things are prepared like rice wine and beer. Animals are slaughtered for meat which is then used in feasts and parties. People allow themselves to drink to their heart’s content. Goblets are crafted out of plantation leaves to serve home prepared rice beer. Gifts and ornate tokens are exchanged and appreciation is expressed. The festival celebrates the joy of people for a very fruitful season. Prayers are initiated and Gods are presented with beer prepared out of rice. Food is also given as offering on leaves.

Matta Rice

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matta rice

Matta Rice is an indigenous kind of rice grown in Kerala in the district of Palakkad in India. It is different from brown rice. Matta rice is usually referred to as Rosematta rice or Kerala Red rice. It is popular in Southern India and many parts of Sri Lanka. In these areas, it is extensively used in their local food that includes idlis, appam, and plain rice. It is usually combined with meat in the meal where the blend gives an earthy flavour to the meal.

Cultivation:

Cultivation of matta rice
Cultivation of matta rice

Matta rice is grown in the southern states of Karnataka and Kerala in India. Matta rice gives Kerala farmers a premium of Rs. 300 for 500 kg of paddy. Matta rice is cultivated in the dense black cotton soil of the district of Palakkad in Kerala. These paddy fields are called ‘poonthalpadam‘ and the soil contains a lot of clay and deposit. Because of these qualities, this kind of paddy fields can hold more water.

Nutritional value:

One cup cooked matta rice contains :

Carbohydrates – 42g (93%)

Fats – 0g (0%)

Proteins – 3g (7%)

 Bowl of cooked matta rice
Bowl of cooked matta rice

Benefits:

Due to the above nutritional values, it must have remarkable benefits.

  1. a) Nutrient-Rich

Unlike other rice grains, when polished to appear shiny and clean, matta rice does not lose its outer coats and thus retains its nutritional value.

  1. b) Not Just Carbs

Par-boiling this rice helps in recollecting the nutrition so that the meal is not just full of carbohydrates.

  1. c) Best Source of Magnesium

Magnesium, of which matta rice is a great source of, is an important mineral required every day in numerous enzymatic reactions in our body, and its absence can lead to several health conditions.

  1. d) Reduces Risk Of Certain Diseases

Consumption of matta rice reduces the risk of certain cancers and several heart problems as this rice is heart-friendly due to negligible fat contents and cholesterol, keeping the risk of blood clots away.

  1. e) Decrease Risk Of Diabetes

Type 2 Diabetes is one of the most predominant long-lasting diseases that affects many, including children. Unrestrained Type 2 Diabetes can impair the quality of life due to morbidity. But matta rice treats this effectively by protection from developing insulin resistance and enhancing optimum glucose uptake.

  1. f) Meets Your Daily Fiber Requirement

Matta rice meets your daily fiber requirement to help our digestion. As it is rich in fiber, it helps to keep our digestive system running efficiently. Fiber helps add volume and smoothness to our defecation system.

  1. g) Source Of Vitamins A And B

Matta rice’s nutrient-rich coat contains substantial amounts of Vitamin A, and some forms of Vitamin B. These are really vital for maintaining many systems of your body and living healthy.

  1. h) Great Source Of Calcium

Matta rice facilitates a great source of Calcium. From playing a vigorous role in growth during childhood to being a decisive constituent in muscle health and function, calcium also keeps our bones and teeth strong and healthy . Especially vital for women post-menopause, Matta rice matches the diet with a good amount of calcium, protecting one from painful and bulky diseases such as Osteoporosis and weakened bones.

Considering all these benefits, one can say that Matta rice just doesn’t complement with food tastes but also provides several good health benefits.

Bronze Sculptures

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bronze sclupture

Bronze is the most popular metal for cast metal Sculptures. Starting with the first smelting of metals bronze sculptures have been part of human kind’s attempts to create artistic images of the world around it. Some of the archeological discoveries of bronze sculptures has helped a lot to know about earlier civilizations such as Indus Valley civilization. Considering the historical perspective bronze is one of the most popular metals used for metallic sculptures due to its availability and composition. Since they were highly variable in composition most of the earlier metallic workers used whatever scrap they could get.

The common bronze mixture contains 88% Copper and 12% Tin. The common Bronze alloys used for sculptures have the unusual property of expanding slightly before they set and it made easier to fill out the finest details, a quality that made it desirable among the cast metallic artistic society. As the bronze cools down it begins to shrink a little making it easier to separate the cast from the mold. The most common method for making bronze sculptures is the Lost waxing casting process.

Mahavairochana

Indian bronzes exhibit rare charm and exquisite beauty. They are valued for their elegance and craftsmanship. The oldest group of bronze sculptures from the Indian subcontinent date back to the 3rd-millennium B.C.E. Occasionally it was alloyed with eight metals and called Ashtadhatu. Usually, Indian bronzes are cast solid but very often they can be hollow and finished with engravings, gilding or repousse.

The tradition of casting metal images started in north-west India. It later travelled through the heartland of the country, reached south India around 3rd-4th century C.E. and attained a high watermark under the reign of Pallavas, Cholas and other succeeding dynasties. Bronze sculptures have been discovered from all parts of India; from Kashmir in the north to Kerala in the South and from Gujarat in the west to Odisha in the east. Bronze images of saints were conceived by craftsmen as ideal portraits. These images show the persona of the saint, usually recognizable by his specific attributes and by his physiognomy. They were dearly admired for their absolute devotion, lucid poetry and selflessness. Owing to such qualities they were molded into bronze figures and worshipped in home-shrines.

bronze sclupture

Bronzes of the post-Chola period, that is Vijayanagar and Nayaka, as well as later periods of Kerala, are characterized by growing emphasis on minor details and elongated figures. The images are elaborately carved but in perfect harmony. The emphasis on details is more obvious in the 17th-century bronzes form Kerala. Metal sculpture making also existed in the Deccan plateau, lying between the Narmada and the Tungabhadra rivers. The craft of image casting in metal, however, dwindled almost to a ceasing point with the coming of Islamic dynasties in the 14th-century CE. The bronze tradition from the Himalayan region, which primarily includes the valleys of Kashmir, Chamba, and Swat are unique and widespread. The earliest bronzes found from these areas belong to the post-Gupt

The Kashmiri Bronzes, belong to the 9th to 13th century. The Kashmiri artists excelled in gold and silver casting although they preferred to work in brass. The Kashmiri bronzes are pale gold in colour and gilding is rarely seen. The sculptures are full and rounded, and Gandhara or Greek influence can occasionally be seen. The Himachal bronzes are not full-bodied but slim in comparison and bear a linear quality that defines the Pahari style of art. The subjects of the bronzes are mostly Buddhist and Brahmanical.