The Koyas, thickly populated in the Chinthur Mandal, of the Bhadrachalam agency in
Andhra Pradesh, are migrants from the Bastar region in northern India, who live on
both the sides of the Godavari river. Physically they are classified as Australoid and
they call themselves “Koithur”. They are one of the few multi-lingual and multi-
racial tribes in India. Their population in Andhra Pradesh counts up to 106,000 and
almost 795,000 spread out in other states of India like Telangana and Odisha.
Koyas also live in Chhattisgarh as a mixed tribe with Gond tribe, which had a considerable
influence on their language, Koyi, which is closely related to both Gondi and Telugu,
which is their primary language. They believed life to be originated from water,
according to their mythology. All Koya belong to one of five sub-divisions called
gotrams. Every Koya is born into a clan, and he cannot leave it.
The Koyas are farmers by occupation, who depend on rain for irrigation, with slash
and burn cultivation techniques being their traditional mode of agriculture. However,
the government has now restricted their movement and has encouraged them to
farm on fixed plots. They showed the Koya how to farm coconut and coffee. They
also granted the Koya permanent ownership rights to their land if they would grow
Their staple diet is sorghum and they survive on palm juice for over 4
months, and consider the palm tree as a gift of nature and to secure this gift they
worship the village Goddess “Muthyalamma” and consume mohuva liquor to get
relief from the physical hardship of the day and to withstand extreme variations in
the climate. They are also expert hunters, owing to their need for food and safety
from the wild animals. In their culture, Cattle are symbols of wealth.
Most of their festivals are related to agricultural operations, and they worship the
Earth-Goddess “Bhudevi” and enlist the co-operation of the Goddess by offering
animal sacrifices during the festival. They believe that sowing seeds that are soaked
in sacrificial blood bring them good crops. Birth, marriage and death are the three
important aspects of life and each event is celebrated on a grand scale in Koya
society. The Bison-horn dance is a special feature on the occasion of a marriage
ceremony among the Koyas. And they do not believe in heaven, hell, or
Mussoorie, the Queen of hills, with its magnificent lush green tranquil hills, natural beauty, archaic architecture, and as a centre of education and business, is an ideal place for a holiday, a romantic honeymoon as well as a pilgrimage as it is also known as the gateway to the “Gangotri” and “Yamunotri” shrines. It is also famous for Lal Bahadur Shastri National Academy of Administration (LBSNAA), where officers are trained for the Indian Civil Services, making it the dream destination of innumerable aspirants.
This colonial hill station is located in the Dehradun District of the Indian state of Uttarakhand, at the foothills of the Garhwal Himalayan range. It stands at an altitude of 7000 feet above sea level, and has a cool, pleasant climate throughout the year. Though Mussoorie is a delight to visit no matter the season, the best time to visit is from April to June, to enjoy the pleasant Summer, and it is advised to avoid it in Monsoon if you don’t want landslides to disrupt your plans.
Besides the panoramic vistas, the scenic landscapes, meandering rivers and valleys, there are also umpteen things to do in Mussoorie. It has something to offer to everyone, may it be the romantic couples, the adventure seekers, nature lovers or the wanderers.
Here is a list of 21 things you could do at Mussoorie :
1. Bask in the beauty of Kempty falls
2. Shop at “The Mall”
3. Ride the ropeway at Gun Hill
4. Taste the local cuisine
5. Enjoy the view from the highest point of the area, Lal Tibba
6. Soak in the serenity of the Lake Mist
7. Spot the wildlife at the Benog Wildlife Sanctuary
8. Walk up to the Cloud’s end, the mark of the end of Mussoorie
9. Trek to Nag Tibba and the Mossy falls
10. Get an adrenaline rush at paragliding and white water rafting
11. Peek into the local culture and get blessing at the Jwala Devi Temple and the Shedup Choepelling Temple
12. Visit the Happy Valley
13. Marvel at the architecture of the Mussoorie Christ Church, which boasts of being the very first Catholic church in all of the Himalayan region.
14. Take a stroll down the vibrant Library Bazaar, bustling with energy and vivacity.
15. Have a funtastic day at the Mussoorie Adventure Park, which offers variety of activities including rock climbing, rappelling, trekking, parallel rope, zip line etc.
16. Go wild with the wildlife safari at the Jabarkhet Wildlife Reserve, which is the first privately owned and operated wildlife sanctuary in Uttarakhand, which is also the first of its kind in all of India.
17. Experience nostalgia at Sir George Everest’s House, after whom the world’s highest peak is named.
18. Explore the culture and tradition of Himalayas showcased at The Soham Heritage and Art Centre
19. Picnic at the Company Garden
20. Bird watch at Devalsari
21. Brave the mysterious and haunted Lambi Dhar Mines
So next time whenever you travel to Mussoorie do visit the places mentioned above and describe your traveling experiences to us in the comment section below!
There are various recreational activities and hobbies people follow. But, I’m sure there are really a handful of recreational activities that helps some people to earn a living, treats certain kind of illness or disorder and helps make things look more extravagant at the same time. Tatting is one of them.
Tatting basically is the technique of handcrafting a particularly durable lace from a series of knots and loops. Tatting involved and started from sailors and fishermen who netted decorative ropework in order to gift it to their girlfriends and wives. As it goes, decorative ropeworks on boats and ships closely resemble this technique as it is seen today. In German, tatting is usually known by the Italian-derived word Occhi or as Schiffchenarbeit, which means “work of the little boat”, referring to the boat-shaped shuttle; in Italian, tatting is called chiacchierino, which means “chatty”. This technique is used to make doilies, collars and accessories such as earrings and necklaces, and other decorative pieces. The lace is formed by a pattern of rings and chained from a series of interrelated to each other over a core thread.
Tatting with a shuttle is the earliest method of creating tatted lace. Now, there are more ways of tatting. These include Shuttle tatting (the usual method with a boat-shaped shuttle), Needle tatting (usage of doll needle or tatting needle in the place of the usual shuttle) and Cro-tatting (a combination of crochet and tatting using a tatting needle which has a crochet hook at the end).
Various kinds of materials are used in tatting and have varied from decade to decade. Like in the 1900s, fine white or ivory threads were used to intricate these designs. These were used in the older designs. In 1920s, tatting saw evolutions and new techniques and newer designs started to get produced. A hard thread was used so that it didn’t untwist readily. The Cordonnet thread is the common tatting thread. Last but not the least, tatting has been used as occupational therapy to keep convalescent patients’ hands and minds active during their recovery.
Many people confuse tatting and crochet to be the same but, there are many differences. The basic difference is in the tools used. Tatting uses shuttle and crochet means is the French word for ‘hooks’. In crochet making, people use delicate steel hooks. Secondly, tatting is a long and complicated process. It involves precision and attention because a little mistake could spoil the entire crafted material. Whereas in the case of crochet, its fast and offers more designs. The main reason why crochet is chosen over tatting is the speed and versatility it offers. The secret to the speed lies in the hook after all.
Now that you have a brief idea over it, you might try this out. You would love it and more evidently, you can decorate your house with it.